Unit 1- A Method of alignment
A Method of alignment: Inspiration and motivation
The alignment requires a comparative reading of any text in its original language, compared to its different translations in different languages, both ancient and new such as Greek, Hebrew, Latin, English, Italian and so on. Alignment (technical alignment) means positioning or arranging or rearranging words, but also things or people on a line. Alignment also means changing something, but keeping alive a correct relationship or an agreement with something different, distinct but also similar or with its parenting. Alignment creates intuitively linear or interlinear correlations and associations between two or more variables.
Concordances of the Bible – the Cartesian Coordinates (Excel Worksheet) – Harmony of the four Gospels – Qere/Ketiv in Hebrew Bible – Parallelism used to understand a text – Interlinear Bibles to facilitate the reading of the Bible in its original languages – the internet.
Philology: that is, the study of literary texts and oral and written documents, with particular attention to their historical development and diachronic analysis (vertical); but it should be also contrasted with synchronic (horizontal) analysis.
Synchrony and diachrony: these are two different and complementary points of view in linguistic analysis. A synchronic approach aims to describe a language at a given moment, usually the present without taking into account its history. On the contrary, a diachronic approach considers the development and evolution of a language through history.
The 4 Gospels: they are four books but, in parallel and with variants, they all tell the same story of the death and resurrection of Jesus, or better Yeshua who says he is himself the Christ, or still better the Messiah. Three out of four gospels are called Synoptics and their names are Matthew, Mark and Luke; these books include many of the same stories, often told in a similar logical sequence or timeline.
Old and New Testament: (the Scriptures) are basically only one Hebrew-Aramaic-Greek text but translated into Greek and Latin - and also in other thousands of modern languages.
To correlate Hebraica Veritas (OT-Torah) to the Greek Veritas (NT-Gospel), through the Latin translation (Vulgate - Vulgata or New Vulgate – Nova Vulgata), describing the cultural, linguistic relationship between the ancient Hebrew Scriptures and the more recent Greek Gospels. To learn Greek through Hebrew/Aramaic, Latin, English, Italian and or other modern Languages, such as modern Hebrew and modern Greek in an easy and progressive way, by aligning word forms, syntagmas, phrases, short sentences, verses.
Why to align? Example: Psalm 39,11 in Greek = Psalm 40,10 in Hebrew
Alignment is necessary to avoid losing meaning of the original text when it is distributed in another language, as for example in the Psalm 39,11 (40,10 in Hebrew numeration), the Greek LXX word ἀλήθεια (alḗtheia) which means "revelation - discovering - unveiling" something which is hidden, translates both H530 אֱמוּנָה or אֱמֻנָה [ĕmûnâ or ʾĕmunâ, "firmness, fidelity, steadfastness steadiness", and H571 אֱמֶת, "firmness, faithfulness, sureness, reliability, stability" in one and the same verse:
“I have not hid_H3680 thy righteousness_H6666 within_H8432 my heart_H3820; I have declared_H559 thy faithfulness_H530 [אֱמוּנָתְךָ = ἀλήθειάν σου = veritatem tuam] and thy salvation_H8668: I have not concealed_H3582 thy loving kindness_H2617 and thy truth_H571 [וַאֲמִתְּךָ = ἀλήθειάν σου = veritatem tuam] from the great_H7227 congregation_H6951."
- Very important in this course is learning how to search online for anything difficult to understand at first glance. The Strong number, for example, used for Hebrew (H) and Greek (G) is a very useful tool for aligning with words in English, or in another modern language used for translation, the original Greek word or Hebrew word - represented by this code. This is a way of doing reverse translations, that is, starting from the modern language to understand and rewrite or translate the text back to Greek (or Hebrew).
Why to align?- Genesis 24,27: revelation of faithfulness
See also Genesis 24,27: “And he said_H559, Blessed_H1288 be the LORD_H3068 God_H430 of my master_H113 Abraham_H85, who has not left destitute_H5800_H5973 my master_H113 of his mercy_H2617 and his truth_H571 [וַאֲמִתּוֹ = et veritatem suam = τὴν ἀλήθειαν = e fedeltà]: I being in the way_H1870, the LORD_H3068 led me_H5148 to the house_H1004 of my master's_H113 brethren_H251”.
Align sequences or progressions or associations (syntagmas) of words (G3598 ὁδός - G225 ἀλήθεια - G2222 ζωή) with different meanings but at the end merged into one, to describe the same character, Jesus the Christ.
See John 14,6: Jesus/Yeshua_G2424 says_G3004 to [Thomas] him_G846>, I_G1473 am_G1510 the way_G3598, and_G2532 the truth_G225, and_G2532 the life_G2222: no man_G3762 comes_G2064 to_G4314 the Father_G3962, but/except_G1508 by/through_G1223 me_G1700.
Notice on the triad
The three words suggest a method to read theologically the entire Bible which is structured on these fundamental ideas or proposals. The word ὁδός, “way”, is basic to examine the whole biblical text and scientifically relevant beneath other modern words, such as "method" (process, system, policy), "exodus" (flight, way out), "synod". In the Bible you can also quite frequently (57 times) find εἴσοδος (eísodos), which from Homer on means an "entrance, introduction, arriving, input", i. e. both the place or way leading into a place (as, a gate, gateway). Read, for example,
2 Peter 1,11: For_G1063 so_G3779 an entrance_G1529 [ἡ εἴσοδος = introitus = מְבוֹא] shall be ministered_G2023 to you_G5213 abundantly_G4146 into_G1519 the everlasting_G166 kingdom_G932 of our_G2257 Lord_G2962 and_G2532 Saviour_G4990 Jesus_G2424 Christ_G5547.
Guidelines for alignment
Keep in mind that by choosing "Torah" (education, instruction, training of God's people) instead of "Law" (right, rule, lawsuit) or "Jesus" instead of "Yeshua", or "Disciple" instead of "Talmid", you can change the historical context of an authoritative text.
- Be methodical
- Be perceptive, insightful, aware, suspicious
- Develop your lateral or parallel thinking by comparison
- Use an unaccomplished, open-ended thinking
- Read first the text in your language
- Read the context (setting, background) before and after the text to be aligned to its different translations
- Read the entire sentence or verse
- Break, and break down again and again the text, the book, the chapter, the pericope, the verse, the sentence, the phrase, the syntagm, the word form, the lemma
- Observe the graphic and semantic proximity of words: contiguity, juxtaposition, gap or distance
- Seek for the diacritical signs (: , ; . ! ? … - -- ' "), and for all other hint or sign or mark of change such as conjunctions, particles, interjections.
Training: alignment is a Greek idea
To develop the idea and practice of “alignment” in modern Greek click into this modern english_greek_dictionary:
αριθμός (arithmós); γραμμών (grammón); ευθυγραμμίζω (efthygrammízo): align, collimate; ευθυγράμμιση (efthygrámmisi): aligning; ευθυγράμμιση (efthygrámmisi): παραλληλισμός (parallilismós): collimation; σχοινομετρώ (schoinometró): align; φέρω εις γραμμή (féro eis grammí): align. - εὐθύς (euthýs) straight, level: of a way (Matt 3,3); Mark 1,3; Luke 3,4; Acts 9,11; Luke 3,5; εὐθεῖα ὁδός the straight, the right way - εὐθέως (euthéōs) straightway, immediately, forthwith. - εὐθύνω (euthýnō), to make straight, level, plain: τήν ὁδόν, John 1,23 (Sir 2,6; 37,15); to lead or guide straight, to keep straight, to direct. - εὐθυδρομέω (euthydroméō): to make a straight course, run a straight course. - εὔθυνα: a setting straight, correction, chastisement, an examination of accounts, audit.
- Discover more words to expand the idea of alignment: dowload the glossary.
Training: alignment with Hebrew words - use online tools
Alignment means setting words in a different order: interpreting to translate from one language to another through comparison and balancing. The alignment consists of presenting one word to the other, equivalent or only similar or contextually parallel in other languages, creating pairs or triads, or corrections and oppositions in meanings. Alignment creates new sequences, correlating similarities and differences. The alignment is drawing a story or a message; is to distribute a different narrative or teaching from the same text in different languages. All these activities seem to be ancient and already present throughout the Bible.
They exist and can be discovered, or at least found under Hebrew words translated into Greek and or into Latin in different historical contexts.
USEFUL HEBREW WORDS
For modern Hebrew, check hebrew_dictionary. In the Hebrew Bible search for English words or Strong's numbers in eliyah_lexicon or in obohu_strongnr (other online tools: multilanguage - strongs_numbers - english_hebrew_greek_lexicon - latin dictionaries - perseus_morph_greek - Italiano)
- Discover new Hebrew-English words: download the glossary.
Training: alignment through common Latin words
In an online Latin dictionary look for:
derigo, dirigo (direct, steer, guide, align, point) - derigere, dirigere (set in order, form up) - derexi, derectus (straighten, level, set in order) - collineo-collineo-conlinio, collineare-collineare-conliniari, collineavi-colliniavi-conliniavi, collineatus-colliniatus-conliniatus (align, direct, aim; direct in a straight line). In the NOV or Vulgata look for words such as those you'll find here.
Unit 2 - Outline of this course
Structure of the course
The 4 complete narratives of the Passion, Death, Resurrection, Apparitions and Ascension of Jesus are told in a parallel way in Matthew 26-28, Mark 14-16, Luke 22-24 and in John 18-21.
Lesson 1 - A Method of alignment: Inspiration, goals and training with Hebrew, Latin and Greek words and ideas
Lesson 2 - Matthew 26,1-5, Incipit: De consilio sacerdotum/The Plot to kill Jesus/Il complotto per uccidere Gesù - in the narrative of the Passion, Death, Resurrection and Apparitions of Jesus: Matthew 26,1-28-20
Lesson 3 - Matthew 28,16-20, Finale: Euntes, docete omnes gentes/The Commissioning of the Disciples/Il mandato ai discepoli di arrivare ai popoli - in the context of the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus: Matthew 26,1-28-20
Lesson 4 - Mark 14,1-2, Incipit: De consilio sacerdotum/The Plot to kill Jesus/Il complotto dei sacerdoti per uccidere il Giusto - in the context of the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus: Mark 14,1-16,20
Lesson 5 - Mark 16,19-20, Finale: Apparitions Christi resuscitati/The Ascension of Jesus/Apparizioni di Gesù a donne e a uomini, singoli e in gruppo - in the context of the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus: Mark 14,1-16,20
Structure of the course/2
Lesson 6 - Luke 22,1-2, Incipit: De consilio sacerdotum/The Plot to kill Jesus/Il complotto dei sacerdoti del Tempio per uccidere il Giusto - in the context of the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus: Luke 22,1-24,53
Lesson 7 - Luke 24,36-53, Finale: Hierosolymis apparet apostolis/Jesus Appears to His Disciples/Gesù si mostra vivo, ma ai suoi amici - in the context of the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus: Luke 22,1-24,53
Lesson 8 - John 18,1-11, Incipit: Iesus comprehenditur/The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus/Il tradimento e l’arresto di Gesù da parte dei custodi del Tempio - in the context of the Jesus’ Exaltation: John 18,1-20,29
Lesson 9 - John 20,30-31, Finale 1: Conclusio evangelii prior/The Purpose of This Book –John 21,24-25, Finale 2: Annotatio finalis/Jesus and the Beloved Disciple/Gesù e il discepolo preferito - in the context a second conclusion of this Gospel: John 21,1-25
Lesson 10 - Studying and Aligning with Parallels 261 Unique Words in 4 Gospels - Examples
Abbreviations and definitions - Bibliography
BGT: BibleWorks Greek LXX/BNT, Number of Books: 88 (Gen Exo Lev Num Deu Jsa Jos Jda Jdg Rut 1Sa 2Sa 1Ki 2Ki 1Ch 2Ch 1Es Ezr Neh Est Jdt Tob Tbs 1Ma 2Ma 3Ma 4Ma Psa Ode Pro Ecc Sol Job Wis Sip Sir Pss Hos Amo Mic Joe Oba Jon Nah Hab Zep Hag Zec Mal Isa Jer Bar Lam Epj Eze Sus Sut Dan Dat Bel Bet Mat Mar Luk Joh Act Rom 1Co 2Co Gal Eph Phi Col 1Th 2Th 1Ti 2Ti Tit Phm Heb Jam 1Pe 2Pe 1Jo 2Jo 3Jo Jud Rev)
BW: BibleWorks 9, 2013 BibleWorks, LLC, Software copy licensed to Angelo Colacrai (now, out of the market)
CEI: La Sacra Bibbia della Conferenza Episcopale Italiana, 2008 Number of Books: 74
CJB: The Complete Jewish Bible; English; Number of Books: 66 in BW
DLZ: Delitzsch Hebrew NT, Number of Books: 27 – Based on 1624 Received Greek Text (Textus Receptus, established and first published by Erasmus), by Franz Julius Delitzsch (1813 to 1890), Delitzsch's New Testament was first published in 1877
GNT: Greek New Testament
HD: Habrit Hakhadashah Haderek (Bible Society, Israel)
HNT: Salkinson-Ginsburg Hebrew NT; Modern Hebrew; Number of Books: 27 (1886/1999. Salkinson-Ginsburg edition of 1886, revised 1999 to conform to the Textus Receptus Greek NT) – in BW
Abbreviations and definitions/2
HOT: Hebrew Old Testament (generic acronym)
HRNT: Modern Hebrew New Testament; עברית [Hebrew]; This translation, published by the Bible Society in Israel, was published in 2010. Available online
KJV: King James (1611/1769) with Codes – Strong’s Numbers -English - Number of Books: 66; See: The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible is a Bible concordance, i.e. an index of every word in the King James Version, constructed under the direction of James Strong (1882-1894). Dr. Strong first published his Concordance in 1890, while professor of exegetical theology at Drew Theological Seminary. Strong's Concordance includes: 8674 Hebrew root words used in the Old Testament. (Example: Hebrew word H582 in Strong's Concordance = אֱנוֹשׁ 'enowsh: man, mortal man, person, mankind) and 5624 Greek root words used in the New Testament. (Example: G435 in Strong's Concordance = ἀνήρ anèr: a male; a husband)
LXA: Brenton LXX with Apocrypha; English translation from Greek; Number of Books: 55
LXT: LXX Septuaginta (Old Greek Jewish Scriptures) edited by Alfred Rahlfs. - Copyright © 1935 by the Württembergische Bibelanstalt / Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society), Stuttgart. - Number of Books: 61 (Gen Exo Lev Num Deu Jsa Jos Jda Jdg Rut 1Sa 2Sa 1Ki 2Ki 1Ch 2Ch 1Es Ezr Neh Est Jdt Tob Tbs 1Ma 2Ma 3Ma 4Ma Psa Ode Pro Ecc Sol Job Wis Sip Sir Pss Hos Amo Mic Joe Oba Jon Nah Hab Zep Hag Zec Mal Isa Jer Bar Lam Epj Eze Sus Sut Dan Dat Bel Bet)
Abbreviations and definitions /3
LXX: Septuaginta (the Greek Old Testament)
MET: Metaglottisis Greek New Testament; Modern Greek; Number of Books: 27
MGK: Modern Greek Bible, Vamvas 1850; Modern Greek; Number of Books: 66 (in BW)
NAU: New American Standard Bible with Codes – Strong’s Numbers; in English; Number of Books: 66
NKJ: New King James Version with Codes – Strong’s Numbers; English; Number of Books: 66
NOV: Nova Vulgata (Latin), Number of Books: 73 (Gen Exo Lev Num Deu Jos Jdg Rut 1Sa 2Sa 1Ki 2Ki 1Ch 2Ch Ezr Neh Tob Jdt Est Job Psa Pro Ecc Sol Wis Sir Isa Jer Lam Bar Eze Dan Hos Joe Amo Oba Jon Mic Nah Hab Zep Hag Zec Mal 1Ma 2Ma Mat Mar Luk Joh Act Rom 1Co 2Co Gal Eph Phi Col 1Th 2Th 1Ti 2Ti Tit Phm Heb Jam 1Pe 2Pe 1Jo 2Jo 3Jo Jud Rev)
TH (Daniel): Theodotion version
VUL: Latin Vulgate, Latin; Number of Books: 78
WTT: Leningrad Hebrew Old Testament; Hebrew; Number of Books: 39: Gen Exo Lev Num Deu Jos Jdg Rut 1Sa 2Sa 1Ki 2Ki 1Ch 2Ch Ezr Neh Est Job Psa Pro Ecc Sol Isa Jer Lam Eze Dan Hos Joe Amo Oba Jon Mic Nah Hab Zep Hag Zec Mal (The WTT Hebrew text is based on the Michigan-Claremont Hebrew text, encoded in 1981-1982 at the University of Michigan under the direction of H. Van Dyke Parunak and Richard E. Whitaker)
Online tools - to develop your linguistic creativity
To conjugate a Latin verb you can simply write in Google Browser, for example: "ire: Latin conjugation"; or, for a Greek verb, "eimi: Greek conjugation" - or, for a Hebrew verb, "amar: conjugation of the Hebrew verb". In any case, you can easily use English equivalences to find the conjugation of almost all verbs in both Latin and Greek and Hebrew.
world_archive - archiveawodka - biblesbibelwissenschaftbible - textbiblehub - interlinearbiblesbibleworks - codingsystembiblical - manuscriptsblueletterbible - cooljugator - latinodizionario - ebraico italiano - lexiconenglish/hebrew - english latin - grecoantico - grecomoderno - morphology codes - lexilogos - netbible - webcorpus_analyzer - world_digital_library - all_languages
In this course it is useful and often essential to navigate back and forth to retrieve old information in order to solve new problems. By choice, I try to combine consistency in the development of analysis, definitions and translation of words and sentences and creativity in alignment, changing language, changing the order of words in the original sentence and thus generating new sentences. My proposal for you is to develop the genius or creativity of your personal language, which belongs to you individually.
- For further readings, dowload the bibliography.
Unit 3 - John 14,6
Risorse della lezione
- A method of aligning cultures, traditions and peoples through their languages
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #1
- Incipit, Matthew 26,1-5
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #2
- Finale, Matthew 28,16-20
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #3
- Incipit, Mark 14,1-2
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #4
- Finale, Mark 16,19-20
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #5
- Incipit, Luke 22,1-2
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #6
- Finale, Luke 24,36-53
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #7
- Incipit, John 18,1-11
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #8
- Double Finale, John 20,30-31 and John 21,24-25
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #9
- The 261 Unique Words in the 4 Gospels
- Quiz: Greek, Hebrew and Latin philology: the Gospels interpretation - lez. #10